Question 1What is the main difference between protists and bacteria?A.Bacteria have DNA, protists do not.B.Protists have a nucleus, bacteria do notC.Bacteria are always gram-negative, protists are gram-positiveD.Protists are unicellular, bacteria are multicellular.E.Protists cannot cause infections, bacteria canQuestion 2Of the following, which kingdom contains the most diversity in terms of DNA sequences?A.ProtistaB.PlantaeC.All of these are approximately equivalently diverse.D.FungiE.AnimaliaQuestion 3During which geological era did Pangea break apart?A.MesozoicB.ArcheanC.ProterozoicD.CenozoicE.PaleozoicQuestion 4In bacteria, the cell wall is composed mainly ofA.various polysaccharides.B.proteins.C.peptidoglycans.D.glycoproteins.E.lipids.Question 5Oxygen built up in the atmosphere approximately 2 billion years ago andA.could not have occurred without the oxygen coming from outer space.B.occurred because aerobic organisms required the oxygen.C.occurred due to carbon dioxide being split by lightning strikes.D.helped to form the ozone layer that is so important to life today.E.destroyed ozone forming more oxygen.Question 6Prions are composed ofA.RNA.B.DNA, RNA, and protein.C.DNA and protein.D.protein.E.DNA.Question 7The endosymbiont hypothesis suggests that the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells are descended from capturedA.eukaryotic algae.B.chemoautotrophic bacteria.C.aerobic bacteria.D.archaebacteria.E.cyanobacteria.Question 8All but one of the following are false regarding protists. Identify the true statement.A.Protists are prokaryotic.B.Most protists are single-celled organisms; some are multicellular.C.All protists are single-celled organisms.D.Protists do not have the ability to move on their own.E.Protists have cell walls composed mainly of peptidoglycans.Question 9Which form of bacterial cells is rod shaped?A.vibriosB.spirillaC.bacilliD.cocciE.rhodiusQuestion 10Paleontologists have found fossils dating back 3.6 billion years. These closely resembleA.fungi.B.today’s simplest plants.C.small invertebrate animals.D.blue-green algae present today.E.nothing alive today.Question 11Eukaryotic cells are thought to haveA.appeared about 2.1 billion years ago.B.developed when mitochondria grew much larger in size that they had been previously.C.evolved before prokaryotic cells.D.first appeared as parts of multicellular organisms.E.first appeared with tough cell walls.Question 12What term is used to indicate a characteristic that is shared and inherited from a common ancestor?A.cladistic traitB.homologous traitC.outgroupsD.analogous traitE.derived traitQuestion 13Kelps are a form of what group of protists?A.slime moldsB.brown algaeC.dinoflagellatesD.ciliatesE.water moldsQuestion 14Endospores formA.to produce two offspring from every one parental cell.B.as a means of genetic recombination.C.in response to adverse conditions.D.during binary fission.E.when the environmental conditions are favorable.Question 15The Cambrian Explosion provided a wealth of fossil remains for scientists to uncover. Many of the animals from this time period had tough skins or shells. This wouldA.protect the animal from osmotic pressure.B.protect the animal from predators.C.make these animals more desirable to predators.D.allow the animals to move into different environments easily.E.be a disadvantage for these organisms and lead to their death and fossil formation.Question 16Some bacteria can form resting structures called ___________ that can withstand extremes in temperature, moisture, and radiation.A.symbiontsB.viroidsC.endosporesD.capsidsE.prionsQuestion 17Rickettsias belong to which major group of bacteria?A.virusesB.cyanobacteriaC.spirochetesD.proteobacteriaE.ArchaeaQuestion 18When taxonomists classify organisms using a phylogenetic approach, they are most concerned withA.outgroups.B.ancestral traits.C.cladists.D.ingroups.E.derived traits.Question 19Atmospheric chemists think that Earth’s first atmosphereA.consisted of carbon in the form of carbon monoxide.B.contained nitrogen in the form of ammonia and nitrogen gas.C.was very similar to today’s atmosphere.D.contained no oxygen atoms.E.consisted of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.Question 20Most bacteria areA.photoautotrophs.B.heterotrophs.C.symbionts.D.microbial predators.E.chemoautotrophs.Question 21This characteristic allows fungi to withstand heat and drought conditions.A.myceliaB.sporesC.cell wallsD.specialized organellesE.hyphaeQuestion 22Lichens areA.insensitive to changes in the environment.B.capable of causing some obscure diseases.C.parasitic interactions between a fungus and an alga.D.only found growing on living matter.E.symbiotic associations between a fungus and an alga.Question 23Green algae such as Ulva demonstrate an alteration of generations. The diploid phase is called theA.gametophyte generation.B.diploid generation.C.embryo.D.zygote.E.sporophyte generation.Question 24All members of the phylum Chordata shareA.exoskeletons.B.a notochord present sometime in their lives.C.tails present throughout their lives.D.gills present throughout their lives.E.a vertebral column.Question 25Which of the following are adaptations to land of both gymnosperms and angiosperms but are lacking in ferns and mosses?A.pollen and seedsB.fruits and flowersC.roots, stems, and leavesD.sporesE.vascular systemQuestion 26In plants, the secondary metabolites are primarily responsible forA.protection against ultraviolet radiation.B.overcoming air pollutants.C.defense.D.food gathering.E.nutrition.Question 27In cnidarians, nematocysts are important inA.obtaining prey.B.obtaining oxygen from the water.C.excretion of wastes.D.food digestion.E.movement.Question 28Which of the following is not a characteristic differentiating Neanderthals from modern humans?A.Neanderthals had projecting brow ridges.B.Neanderthals were stronger.C.Neanderthals were shorter.D.Neanderthals had larger noses.E.Neanderthals had smaller brains.Question 29The segmented worms of the phylum AnnelidaA.move by use of flagella.B.have an open circulatory system.C.are acoelomate.D.display radial symmetry.E.possess setae on each segment.Question 30Fungi exhibit certain characteristics. One of these characteristics is that theyA.lack cell nuclei.B.reproduce using seeds and pollen.C.are prokaryotes.D.reproduce using spores.E.are capable of carrying on photosynthesis.Question 31Mammals have two traits that set them apart from all other animals. These areA.four-chambered heart and milk production.B.body hair or fur, and milk production.C.amniotic eggs and milk production.D.four-chambered heart and body hair or fur.E.body hair or fur, and being homeothermic.Question 32All of the following are parts of a flower except theA.cuticle.B.fruit.C.stamen.D.ovary.E.carpel.Question 33Which of the following characteristics is not shared by typical birds and mammals?A.four limbsB.insulating skin structuresC.four-chambered heartD.milk productionE.endothermyQuestion 34Plants have adapted to dry land by evolving all of the following exceptA.tissues to conduct water through the plant.B.structures to protect reproductive cells and embryos.C.forms of chlorophyll more efficient at capturing light.D.secreting a waxy coating to prevent water loss.E.association with mycorrhizae to improve mineral uptake.Question 35Which of the following adaptations to life on land is found in both insects and modern reptiles?A.tracheae to distribute oxygenB.ability to flyC.metamorphosis from a larval formD.body surfaces that resist evaporationE.two pairs of walking legsQuestion 36It is generally thought that four critical innovations arose during the evolution of our ape-like ancestors into humans. All of the following are innovations exceptA.expansion of the human brain.B.toolmaking.C.development of the opposable thumb.D.bipedalism.E.use of brain power for abstract thought.Question 37In bryophytes, the rhizoidsA.obtain water.B.obtain nutrients.C.lure possible prey.D.serve as attachment structures.E.are involved in reproduction.Question 38In general, mammals are not good at dispersing chili plant seeds becauseA.the seeds die as they pass through the digestive tract.B.the chili seeds do not stick to the mammals’ fur.C.chili seeds are dispersed mainly by the wind.D.the mammals are the main pollinators for the chili plant.E.the mammals do not travel very far before they release the chili seeds.Question 39It is generally thought that animals have undergone four major physiological and anatomical innovations during their evolution. These are (in no particular order)A.development of tissues, photosynthesis, bilateral symmetry, multicellularity.B.origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of the versatile forelimb, origin of the multichambered heart, multicellularity.C.multicellularity, bilateral symmetry, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.D.bilateral symmetry, development of tissues, origin of the multichambered heart, origin of patterns of embryonic development.E.development of the versatile forelimb, multicellularity, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.Question 40Cnidarians and ctenophores are similar in that they both haveA.radial symmetry.B.a pseudocoel.C.nematocysts.D.mesoderm.E.a digestive tract with two openings.
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