Cardiogenic

Cardiogenic shock is a low cardiac output state that is most commonly caused by an AMI with resultant left ventricular dysfunction. This type of shock is associated with acutely deteriorating hemodynamic status and end-organ hypoperfusion, requiring vasopressors, inotropes, and mechanical ventilatory support, which often necessitates the use of invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Classically, cardiogenic shock is characterized by ineffective stroke volume, low cardiac output, low cardiac index, elevated systemic vascular resistance, and high PCWP. Treatment may be specific to underlying etiology and per cardiology. Low cardiac output conditions, including cardiogenic shock, require management to achieve a balance between tissue oxygen delivery and demand. This is achieved through pharmacologic augmentation with inotropes including epinephrine, dopamine and dobutamine. Additionally, the use of systemic vasodilators including nitroprusside is associated with a 17% increased in cardiac index. Vasopressin and norepinephrine may be used for blood pressure support despite the resultant increase in SVR to maintain adequate perfusion to vital organs (van Diepen et al, 2017). Invasive positive pressure ventilation via mechanical ventilation causes left ventricular wall pressure to remain constant, generating a flow gradient between the thorax and peripheral organs, creating an intra-aortic balloon like effect, lowering SVR and left ventricular afterload and improving cardiac output. The additional of a pulmonary artery catheter may guide pharmacological interventions by indirectly measuring SVR, PVR, cardiac index, and oxygen deliver concentration and more, (Alvair et al, 2018). Risk factors associated with the use of invasive hemodynamic monitoring include increased risk for vascular injury, bleeding, thrombosis, and distal limb ischemia. Risk factors associated with the cardiogenic shock patient include cardiopulmonary arrest, arrythmias, acute kidney injury, multisystem organ failure, thrombosis, stroke, and death (Hernandez-Montfort et al, 2022).